Tag Archives: Iraq

Community Engagement Assignment

Locate an organization that is working on one or more of the issues highlighted in this class. Interview the people at this organization: What is the name of the group? What is its mission or goal? How does it carry out its work? What is your sense of the effectiveness of the group? Include a personal comment about your visit.
Write a short report of 4-5 thoughtful paragraphs about the organization.

Having lived in both Canada and Iraq, the organization that I have chosen is the Shaghaf team, working in partnership with Iraqi Al-Amal Association with funding received by the Norwegian Embassy of Amman. The two organizations are currently running a campaign of volunteers across Iraq to promote women’s rights and combat gender-based violence and domestic violence. I interviewed a woman named Shayan K., co-founder of Shaghaf team. We discussed an upcoming event they’re hosting to raise awareness about domestic violence in Kirkuk and to grow support for upcoming legislation that combats domestic violence.

As it stands right now, passing legislation to combat domestic violence has been challenging. The Iraqi parliament in 2019 and 2020 attempted to pass anti-domestic violence laws; however, the legislation was blocked due to the substantial presence of elected ultra-conservatives who oppose it. The members that blocked the legislation believe that perpetrators of domestic violence should not be punished by the state, including those who have committed gruesome acts of so-called “honour” killings. In fact, presently, the Iraqi penal code legalizes domestic violence through Article 41, granting men the power to punish their wives and children. Even more, (dis)honour killings are virtually legal under Article 128(I), which stipulates “honour crimes” to be mitigating circumstances for sentencing and punishment. Unfortunately, there are significant differences in East vs. West perceptions of human rights, with many Eastern religious conservatives attacking human rights advances as Western imperialism(HRW), arguing it is trampling local culture. Nonetheless, this argument and others put forward by opponents often water down to patriarchal beliefs that uphold an unfair system favouring men.

In my chat with Shayan, I learned she is working on a brochure for Shaghaf Team/Al-Amal. This brochure briefly outlines basic statistics concerning domestic violence and very modestly defines it. It provides a basic, cursory overview of the fundamentals of domestic violence; however, if you can read Arabic, you’ll notice that it is relatively sparse in details. There is a reason for this, for there is a real fear that local men may take opposition, leading to protest and potentially harming the chance of passing legislation to combat domestic violence. Shayan tells me that NGOs and rights activists walk a fine line in disseminating information while trying not to provoke backlash.

My sense of the effectiveness of the group is that there are tremendous roadblocks that make it extraordinarily challenging to change minds. Merely talking about gender-based violence issues like marital rape is extremely difficult due to the taboo nature of such topics compounded with many men feeling it is their religious right to perform such acts. These beliefs about domestic violence are normalized to such a scale that many local men and women struggle to comprehend even the basics of women’s rights. Sadly, men often feel it is their right to commit abuses, often with no comprehension that certain acts are abuse at all.

As I chatted with Shayan, she discussed how men often dictate a woman’s life. Many men often instruct their partners on what to wear, either directly or implicitly through coercive and manipulative language. Likewise, often a woman’s privacy is invaded, where even in younger relationships, men may randomly appear at their partner’s engagements to ensure their wife is where she said she would be. There is no understanding that these behaviours are psychologically abusive and harmful to women. Polygamy is also relatively common, and many men maintain multiple marriages, particularly in more conservative regions of the country. Women are frequently kept economically dependent on men through a lack of job opportunities, and socially enforced conservative gender roles that keep women in the home as caregivers. With that in mind, Shayan tells me that it is a struggle to obtain basic rights, as many men also do not want to lose their privilege to dictate the lives of their wives, but also, fear reprisal for abuses committed.

Shayan and I also discussed the major hurdle of having no shelters for women trying to escape domestic violence. The anti-domestic violence legislation of 2019 and 2020 would have compelled the government to build women’s shelters across the country. This is particularly important because families and police in Iraq often take a conciliatory approach, where they try to negotiate a rejoining of partners rather than helping women escape violence. Unfortunately, such an approach places women directly back into harm’s way of violent and abusive partners. Thus, until such legislation passes, women hoping to escape domestic violence lack the means to go anywhere safe. For Shayan, she noted this is the sad reality, that they may be advising women about domestic violence, but at the same time, cannot provide immediate relief for women currently facing these problems.

HRW. (2020, October 28). Iraq: Urgent need for domestic violence law. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved February 23, 2022, from https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/04/22/iraq-urgent-need-domestic-violence-law

Visa on Arrival and renewal guide for tourists in Iraqi-Kurdistan

View from the south-west side of Mount Korek, October 2021.

This past autumn I spent three wonderful months in the beautiful region of Iraqi-Kurdistan. It changed my life forever and I hope to return as soon as possible. The people of the region are the friendliest group I’ve ever met, the mountainous landscapes are gorgeous, and I thoroughly enjoyed visiting some of the oldest historical sites in the world. Now that I’ve returned home, I want to document some of my experiences and publish, what I think, will be a series of helpful guides for others who wish to visit Kurdistan.

A quick note – I wrote this article in December, 2021. It should be accurate for now, however, things within the KRG change frequently – so keep that in mind.

Obtaining Visa on Arrival in Erbil:

Many Western countries may obtain Visa on Arrival (VOA) in Iraqi-Kurdistan (list of countries here) and up to two tourist visa renewals for a total of 90 days (30 day visa-on-arrival , 2 x 30 day visa extensions). If your country is on the list, the VOA process is simple – upon arrival at Erbil International Airport, you will make your way to the visa and customs desk. There, you’ll present your passport and pay a $75 USD visa fee. They’ll take your photo, complete some paperwork, and then stamp your passport. Make sure you have money ready ahead of time because there won’t be an ATM available to you. Likewise, have extra cash for the airport taxi before you arrive. Iraqi-Kurdistan is not a western country, they operate primarily with cash – finding an ATM can be difficult if you don’t know where to look (I’ll be making a post about this soon).

Tip: Some airlines have outdated documentation that isn’t wholly accurate on Iraqi-Kurdistan. Both in Toronto and Dubai, I had to patiently explain to Emirates that the KRG provides VOA for Canadians. I would recommend you print out this list here and highlight your country, so you can present it to the flight attendant if they question you. To be honest, the hardest part about my journey was convincing the Emirates attendant at the Toronto check-in desk that I’d be granted VOA in Erbil.

Renewing your tourist visa:

If you want to stay longer than thirty days on a tourist visa, you’ll require a visa extension from the KRG Residency office. Many people opt to pay a lawyer to handle this, which is likely easier; however, finding a real lawyer and not someone trying to scam you on Facebook can be difficult if you don’t have any local connections. If you want to avoid paying lawyer fees, you may renew your tourist visa on your own by following the guide I’ve prepared below. I should note that paying a lawyer likely won’t cost you too much, so it may be easier to go that route.

In addition, if you don’t speak Sorani or Arabic, you’re going to want to follow these instructions closely otherwise you’ll end up lost and frustrated. It took me three attempts to finally have my visa renewed, partially because of misinformation provided by people trying to be helpful, but also because there are very few resources available explaining this process and I had to use the trial-and-error method to figure it out.

How early may a tourist visa be extended?

Based on my experience, the KRG officers would only extend my visa on the day it expired with the only exception being if the expiry date fell on a weekend. I tried twice to renew in advance, and both times they turned me away and told me to come back on the day of expiry. This leaves things very tight, and if you go beyond the date on your visa then you may be hit with a fine. If the expiry date is on the weekend, they will renew it on the last day of the week. Weekends in Iraq are Friday and Saturday, NOT Saturday and Sunday.

Where are visas extended?

The KRG Residency office is located here on Abdulkaleq Sarsam Street, near Life Towers . Right now, Google Maps will give you the incorrect address if you search it and you’ll end up at the wrong building. Make sure you arrive by 8:30am, and once they open, make your way into the security station (the second one past the gate). You’ll have to leave all electronics with security, including your phone. In exchange, they’ll give you a tag with a number and you’ll use this to collect your electronics when you leave.

This satellite image is a little old, the parking lot is now paved – however, you get the jist of where to go. This is accurate as of December, 2021.

Important note: If you arrive before they open but during a busy time of year, you may have to line up outside first, and they will separate you by gender. I highly recommend you arrive early, or you may be turned away. When I was there in September 2021, there were at least a hundred people waiting to get in. It was mostly Iranian and Turkish citizens renewing their visas (Salam salam!).

Finding your way through the KRG Residency building:

Continuing, after you make it past security, walk towards the main building. Upon entering, head up the stairs to the second floor and once at the second floor, turn right and walk down to the end of the hallway. You’re looking for room 12, located at the very end of the corridor. When you enter room 12, approach the first desk directly in front (sometimes it has a #2 on it) and show your passport visa page. You’ll be given a form to fill out with your name, address, and contact number of someone local. You can write your hotel telephone number.

Tip: Before you arrive at the residency office, write down a local contact number and address on a piece of paper and keep it in your pocket. Also, bring a pen (you’ll need it). You won’t have your phone with you since it is held by security while in the residency building, so you can instead refer to your pocket note when filling out the visa renewal form.

Payment for visa extension:

After filling out the form, you’ll return it to the same desk, and the desk agent will fill out the bottom with the visa fee price. At the time of writing this, the price is 110,000 IQD ($75 USD). I’d recommend bringing dinars to pay, and bring extra in case the price has increased. You’ll then have to head down one floor to room 10. There, you’ll pay the fee, they’ll stamp your renewal form to indicate payment was completed, and then you may return to the second-floor, room 12.

Important note if you visit during the tourist season: If it’s a busy time of year for visa renewals, they may have a desk within room 12 where you will pay the visa fee. If that’s the case, then you won’t have to go down to room 10. When I renewed in October 2021, they added a desk on the left by the entry to room 12. However, when I renewed again in November 2021, during off-season, this desk was removed and I had to pay on the first floor (not ground floor), room 10.

Visa extension processing:

After payment (and returning back to room 12 if you had to leave), drop off the form along with your passport at desk #4 (the one in the corner on the right). Within 10 to 20 minutes, the agent will likely have processed your passport and then you’ll bring it to the first office (on the left side of the room). Inside you’ll find a KRG officer who will stamp your passport and write a date on it.

Once this is complete, bring your passport to the next room attached to room 12 on the right. In this second room are female KRG agents along with a higher ranking KRG officer sitting by the entrance. In there, they’ll give your documents a final lookover and press some buttons on a computer. After that, you’re ready to go, and they’ll say “Welcome to Kurdistan” – even if it’s your second visa extension. 🙂